Pennines, a significant highland mass that forms a relief “backbone” or “spine” in the north of England and extends south from Northumberland to Derbyshire. The highlands have a short, steep western slope and fall slightly to the east. They are surrounded to the east, west, and south by the Vale of York, plains of Lancashire, Cheshire and the valley of the River Trent. In the north, Tyne Gap and Eden Valley separate the Pennines from the Cheviots and the mountains of the Lake District.
The Pennine system is often mistakenly called a chain, but it’s barely a range. Its hills are divided into numerous short fields by valleys (commonly referred to as valleys), which are retreated in all directions. The Pennines form a northern and southern divide that govern the course of all major rivers in the north of England. The Pennines are divided into two main sections by a gap created by the Rivers Aire (east-flowing) and Ribble (west-flowing).
Amazing Natural Beauty
Upper Teesdale is located in the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, affectionately referred to as “England’s Last Wilderness.” If you want to enjoy the wind (and sometimes the rain) in your face, the vast, wild & beautiful moors, the spectacular waterfalls, and the fascinating geology, you will love the Upper Teesdale Valley. And after a long day in the mountains, relax and explore the charming, historic market towns and villages whose Norman castles and manor houses attract attention and interest.
For many people, Teesdale is a river valley somewhere in northeastern England with vague associations with lead mining and shipbuilding. For those who have run or ridden in Teesdale, it is a beautiful area full of interest. It is an area explored along the Teesdale Way and Pennine Way and crossed by numerous paths and trails. The Walney to Wear and C2C bike routes run from coast to coast, and the region is home to countless outdoor competition events every year.
The northern part of the Pennines is more full and generally higher than the southern one. The most top points in the north section are Cross Fell (893 m), Whernside (737 m), Ingleborough (723 m) and Pen-y-Ghent (693 m) m]). In the southern part, altitudes over 600 meters (2000 feet) are rare, except for Kinder Scout (2,088 feet [636 meters]), part of the Peak District of Derbyshire.
The geological structure of the Pennines consists of limestone and Millstone Grit with some local slates. In the drier areas moorland dominates, while the wet, peaty areas are predominantly covered with cottongrass. The tops of the hills are rounded or almost flat, but geological structures and glacial activities have helped to create a beautiful landscape in the valleys. Water Action has developed remarkable underground caves and streams in the limestone of the Pennines. These caves and chasms include the Ingleborough Cave near Clapham, Gaping Gill (over 107m deep) and Rowten Pot (111m deep).
The creek that drains Malham Tarn (stream) disappears underground and reappears at the foot of the cliffs at Malham Cove. A notable underground watercourse in Derbyshire is the River Wye, which goes into Plunge Hole and then crosses Pooles Hole near Buxton. There are only a few lakes in the Pennines, but reservoirs in Millstone Grit provide water to West Yorkshire and Lancashire’s producing regions.
The economy of the Pennines is based mainly on the sheep breeding and the removal of limestone. In the valleys, there are numerous small market towns, including Hawes, Muker, and Grassington. Tourism has become an important economic factor, supported by the designation of the Peak District, Yorkshire Dales and Northumberland National Parks. The Pennine Way, a 400-kilometer walk through the Pennines hills, opened in 1965.
There are numerous prehistoric remains, such as the large stone circle at Arbor Low Hill. Hadrian’s Wall, an ancient Roman defensive line against the peoples of Scotland, stretches from east to west along the northern edge of the Pennines.
The Pennines are the major watershed in northern England for much of their length, dividing east and west. The rivers Eden, Ribble, Dane and tributaries of the Mersey (including Irwell, Tame and Goyt) flow west towards the Irish Sea. On the east side of the watershed spring the rivers Tyne, Tees, Wear, Swale, Ure, Nidd, Wharfe, Aire, Calder and Don in the region and flow east into the North Sea. However, the River Trent rises on the western side of the Pennines before flowing along the southern end of the mountains and on the east side. Along with its tributaries (mainly the Dove and the Derwent), it drains both the eastern and western sides of the southern end to the North Sea.
With a height of less than 900 meters, the Pennines are often referred to as Fells, with most of the mountainous terrain to the north. The highest is Cross Fell in East Cumbria (893 m), while other main peaks in the North Pennines include:
Great Dun Fell (848 m)
Mickle Fell (788 m)
Burnhope Seat (2451 m) (747 m)
The main Yorkshire Dales are
High Seat (710m)
Wild Boar Fell (708m)
Pen-y-Gent (2,274m). 693 m).
The main peaks in the Forest of Bowland include
Ward’s Stone (561 m)
Fair Snape Fell (521 m)
Hawthornthwaite Fell (479 m).
Although the terrain is lower to the south, the main peaks of the South Pennines and Peak District are the
Children’s Scout 636m
Black Chew Head 542m
Rombald’s Moor 1319ft. 402m and Winter Hill 1,496ft. (456 m).
The area contains many Bronze Age establishments and sign of Neolithic settlement (along with henges such as Long Meg and Her Daughters or stone circles).
The Pennines were controlled by the Brigands’ tribal group, which consisted mainly of small tribes living in the area working together in defense and foreign affairs. The brigands developed an early form of the kingdom. During the Roman era, the brigands were dominated by the Romans, who exploited the Pennines for their natural resources, including the wildlife found there.
The Pennines were a significant obstacle to Anglo-Saxon expansion to the west, though it appears that the Anglo-Saxon traveled through the valleys. During the Dark Ages, the Pennines were controlled by Celtic and Anglo-Saxon empires. It is believed that the northern Pennines were under the control of the Kingdom of Rheged.
During the Nordic period, the Pennines were settled by Viking Danes in the east and Norwegian Vikings in the west. The Vikings influenced place names, culture, and genetics. When England was united, the Pennines were incorporated into the country. Its blend of Celtic, Anglo-Saxon and Viking heritage resembled much of the rest of the north of England and its culture developed along with the lowland neighbors of northwest and northeast England. The Pennines were not an independent political community, but were divided between neighboring counties in the northeast and northwest of England; Much of it was in the West Riding of Yorkshire.
The Pennine climate is generally temperate like that of the rest of England, but the hills have more precipitation, stronger winds, and colder weather than the surrounding areas. Higher elevations have a tundra climate. Due to the altitude and distance from the coast, the Pennines experience more snow than the surrounding lowland areas. Unlike lowland areas in England, the Pennines can have pretty severe winters.
The northwest is one of the wettest regions in England, and much of the rain falls on the Pennines. The east side is drier than the west side – the rain shadow protects the northeast of England from rain that would otherwise fall there.
Precipitation is essential for the biodiversity and human population in the area. Many cities are located on rivers that flow from the hills, and in the northwest of England, the lack of natural aquifers is compensated by reservoirs. In the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District, the water has formed canyons, caves and limestone landscapes. In some areas, rainfall has contributed to poor soils, resulting in part in moorland that characterizes much of the field of distribution and In other areas as well where the land has not been damaged, lush vegetation has developed.